Life Molecules

monomer- small unit that can join together with other small units

polymer- large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Carbohydrates- compounds made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atom, usally a ratio of 1:2:1 monomers- sugar molecules polymers-starch main function- main source of energy for the body also used for structural purposes. ex. spagetti and bread.

Lipids- compounds made of carbon and hydrogen atoms, common categories are fats, oils, and waxes, monomers- fatty acids and glycerol, polymers- lipids, main function- used to store energy, waterproof coverings and used un biological membranes. ex. candles and steriods.

Nucleic acids- macromomlecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus, monomers- nucleotides, polymers-polynucleotides, main function- stores and transmits genetic information. ex DNA and RNA

Proteins- macromolecules containing nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, monomers- amino acids, polymers- proteins, main function- body growth and repair, makes enzymes. ex. meat and fish.

Characteristics of Carbon- Carbo is an organic compund. Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons. Carbon can bond with hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, and itself. Has the ability to form millions of different large complex structures. Carbon can form chains of unlimited length. Carbon-Carbon bonds can be at single, double, or triple covalent bonds.

external image carbon-atom.gifexternal image 1-polymer-chain-copy.gif (click on the blue terms to learn more)